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[Special Topic on Leftover Disposal]Proper disposal to reduce food waste and turn Chinese New Year leftovers into rich porridge

[Special Topic on Leftover Disposal]Proper disposal to reduce food waste and turn Chinese New Year leftovers into rich porridge


(Hong Kong News)Traditionally, it means “more than enough every year”. Before the New Year, everyone prepares a large amount of New Year food, but on the fifteenth day of the lunar month, the refrigerator at home is still piled up. There are also leftovers after New Year dinners. Different leftovers can attract different bacteria, so store them. and reheating must be handled with care.

More than 3,000 tonnes of food waste are discarded in Hong Kong every day, accounting for nearly 30% of solid waste. Although the effective date of the garbage levy has been postponed, with the new year starting, start the waste reduction campaign immediately! Learn from a nutritionist to make the best use of food, and use leftover vegetables to prepare “rich porridge” to reduce food waste during the New Year and ensure plenty for the whole family!

Cutting into pieces is conducive to the growth of bacteria. You should eat it as soon as possible after purchasing it or store it in the refrigerator.

Prevent saliva from spreading bacteria on food

New Year’s dinners are frequent, and the portions of the dishes are generous. If you can’t finish the food and don’t want to waste it, you can only save it for another meal. When preserving and reheating meal-proof dishes, pay special attention to food safety. Family doctor Lin Yonghe and nutritionist Wan Kan suggest that it is best to pick up the dishes that need to be reserved before picking up chopsticks or use serving chopsticks to prevent food from being stained by saliva and breeding bacteria and cross-infection.

Some people think that if you reheat it and eat it the next day, it can still be sterilized, right? Whether heating can sterilize depends on temperature and time. Not all bacteria can be killed by heating. Some bacterial spores can resist high temperatures. Contaminated cooked food, improper storage, insufficient reheating temperature, and eating food stored between 4°C and 60°C for a long time are all common causes of bacterial food poisoning.

Family doctor Lin Yonghe

Nutritionist Wan Kan

Listeria

Optimum growth temperature: 37℃

Foods that are easily contaminated: contaminated and undercooked foods such as vegetables and raw meat; milk that has not been pasteurized; processed foods such as soft cheese and frozen meat

Features: Cook until the core temperature reaches 75°C and maintain it for at least 30 seconds, which can kill most pathogenic bacteria.

Salmonella

Optimum growth temperature: 35℃ to 37℃

Foods that are easily contaminated: raw or undercooked eggs and egg products such as cheesecake; undercooked meat and poultry; barbecued meats, bacon, and goose sausages

Features: Cook until the core temperature reaches 75°C and maintain it for at least 30 seconds, which can kill most pathogenic bacteria.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Optimum growth temperature: 37℃

Foods that are easily contaminated: raw or undercooked seafood, shellfish, seafood products and pickled foods such as jellyfish, cuttlefish, pickles, and smoked hooves

Features: Cook until the core temperature reaches 75°C and maintain it for at least 30 seconds, which can kill most pathogenic bacteria.

Staphylococcus aureus

Optimum growth temperature: 37℃

Foods that are easily contaminated: Foods that are contaminated by manual handling after cooking, such as lunch boxes, pastries, sandwiches, and barbecued food

Characteristics: The toxins produced are very heat-resistant and cannot be destroyed by high temperatures.

Bacillus cereus

Optimum growth temperature: 30℃ to 37℃

Foods that are easily contaminated: leftover rice, fried rice, meat, sauces

Features: Heating at 121°C for 3 minutes can eliminate spores

Clostridium perfringens

Optimum growth temperature: 43℃ to 47℃

Foods that are susceptible to contamination: meat that has been cross-contaminated, not cooked thoroughly or stored at inappropriate temperatures for too long, as well as meat products such as stews and brine.

Characteristics: Cooking can kill growing Clostridium perfringens cells, but the spores are heat-resistant and may survive; if cooked food is left at 20°C to 60°C for a period of time, the spores will grow and produce new cells.

Do not store it in the refrigerator for more than 3 days

According to the recommendations of the Center for Food Safety, you should pay attention to the following points when handling leftover food to reduce the risk of food poisoning:

◆Wash your hands before handling leftover food.

◆Cool remaining food as soon as possible and put it in the refrigerator (4℃ or below) within 2 hours after cooking.

◆Food should not be eaten if it has been left at 4°C to 60°C (dangerous temperature range) for more than 4 hours.

◆Reheat thoroughly before eating to ensure the core temperature of the food reaches 75℃ or above and maintain it for at least 30 seconds.

◆Do not reheat cooked food and refrigerate it again.

◆Discard food stored in the refrigerator for more than 3 days.

Shelled seafood tends to breed bacteria

Not all foods are suitable for overnight storage. For example, shelled seafood is prone to bacterial growth and should be eaten as soon as possible after cooking. Wan Kan added that the ideal approach is to cook as much as you eat to avoid leftover food after cooking.

As for the portion of Poon Choi, I often can’t finish it. If you want to eat it between meals, you should pack the Poon Choi immediately after you take it home, take out the portion you want to eat, reheat it thoroughly as soon as possible, and put the rest in the refrigerator immediately.

Poon Choi should not be left up after heating to avoid reheating the food.

Some New Year cakes may contain high-fat and high-sodium ingredients and are not suitable for dinner. Although there are many temptations to eat during the New Year, you should maintain moderation and a balanced diet.

Don’t treat rice cakes as a meal

During the Lunar New Year, New Year delicacies such as carrot cakes and rice cakes are indispensable. The reunion dinner and the New Year’s Eve dinner are filled with big fish and meat one after another, which increases the burden on the gastrointestinal tract and makes indigestion easy.

Family doctor Lin Yonghe reminded that some New Year cakes contain high-fat, high-sugar, and high-sodium ingredients, so don’t treat cakes as a meal.

Excessive intake of high-fat foods may cause indigestion and satiety discomfort, while eating high-sugar foods will increase the risk of obesity and affect blood sugar stability in diabetic patients. In addition, consuming too much sodium can increase the risk of high blood pressure, stroke and coronary heart disease.

Nutritionist Wan Kan reminds you not to underestimate the holiday “one and a half meals” and think that “occasional indulgence” for a few days will not lead to obesity. In fact, 3,500 kcal of calories is approximately equal to 1 pound of body weight. Eat 500 kcal more every day without losing weight. Consume it and gain 1 pound a week.

The calories of 1 piece (approximately 15 grams) of fried rice cakes are about 70 to 130 kcal, the calories of 1 piece (approximately 85 grams) of coconut rice cake are about 204 kcal, and the calories of a New Year’s Eve meal are estimated to be 2,300 kcal (depending on the dish) and portion size), unknowingly exceeding the daily caloric requirements.

Calculated based on light physical activity levels, the average daily caloric requirements for male and female adults are 2,000 kcal and 1,500 kcal respectively.

There are many temptations to eat during the New Year, but it is important to maintain self-discipline. You should maintain a balanced diet, consume enough water, vegetables and fruits, and reduce the consumption of high-sugar, high-fat and high-sodium foods.

In addition to controlling your diet, there are often many parties during this period. Lin Yonghe reminds you to pay attention to your meals and work and rest times, and avoid staying up all night, going to bed late and getting up late.

Cook ten grain porridge

Reduce intestinal burden

During the Lunar New Year, it is traditional to buy Shaoxing dishes to “enjoy the New Year”, which are homophonic sounds to attract wealth. There are also dace balls left in the Poon Choi and white-cut chicken that are used to worship the gods at the beginning of the new year. They are still stuck in the refrigerator. What should I do?

Nutritionist Professor Wan Kan turns the leftovers into a rich “Flying Fish and Fengming Lucky Ten Grain Porridge”, which is especially suitable to reduce the burden on the intestines after heavy meals for several days. Each serving of Ten Grain Porridge has 257 kcal, 5 grams of dietary fiber, and 3 servings of meat (one serving is about the size of a mahjong. It is recommended for adults to consume 5 to 8 servings of meat a day). It is also paired with a plate of quick-fried rice with less oil. Green vegetables can be a nutritionally balanced meal.

Fish leaping and phoenix singing attracts wealth and ten-grain porridge

(Serves 2 people)

90 grams of ten-grain rice, 6 pieces of skinless chicken, 2 dace balls (ping pong wave size), 4 large slices of Shaoxing vegetables, 750 to 1000 ml of water (depending on the consistency of the porridge base), appropriate amount of green onion or coriander

1/Wash the ten-grain rice and soak overnight.

2/Add ten-grain rice and water to the rice cooker, and select the “cooking porridge” mode.

3/ Wash the Shaoxing vegetables and cut into shreds and set aside.

4/ Take out the chicken and dace balls from the refrigerator and soak them in hot water for 10 minutes.

Remove any oil and sauce from the surface.

5/Add the chicken and dace balls 15 minutes before the “porridge” mode is completed.

6/Sprinkle with chopped green onion or coriander according to personal preference, bring to a boil and serve.

Help promote intestinal health and prevent constipation

◆Different brands of ten-grain rice have slightly different ingredients. They usually include brown rice, millet, wheat, buckwheat, oatmeal, black glutinous rice, purple rice, etc. It combines the nutritional value of multiple grains and is unrefined to retain more nutrients. For example, brown rice retains the bran layer and germ, and contains more vitamin B complex and vitamin E, minerals, and dietary fiber than refined white rice.

◆Ten-grain rice is rich in dietary fiber, which provides a longer feeling of satiety, helps promote intestinal health, prevents constipation, and protects cardiovascular health. It can also delay the release of sugar, slow down the rise in blood sugar after meals, and keep blood sugar at a higher level. stable level.

◆Ten-grain rice is rich in fiber and difficult to digest. Elderly people or people with poor digestive function should eat it with caution. It is easier to digest and absorb when cooked into porridge.

◆The process of cooking porridge gelatinizes starch, and its structure is easily broken down by digestive enzymes. It is easier to digest than rice. It is especially suitable for indigestion after eating and drinking during festivals. Eating porridge can reduce the burden on the gastrointestinal tract.

◆The longer the cooking time of porridge and the thicker it is cooked, the higher the glycemic index (GI). Diabetic patients should not eat more. Choosing low GI ten-grain rice can lower the glycemic index. Adding fiber, protein and healthy fat sources to porridge, such as vegetables, chicken, and fish, can also reduce the rate at which blood sugar rises.

◆Excessive intake of any carbohydrate may cause blood sugar to rise. Regardless of the glycemic index, the amount of food consumed must be controlled.

Wen ◇ Li Chu’er “Ming Pao”

Add more vegetables for a balanced diet

Master 3 principles for transforming leftovers

During the New Year, every household prepares sumptuous New Year dishes, but often they can’t finish them all. You might as well use your ingenuity to transform the “leftovers” into “winner dishes”.

The first thing to pay attention to when eating endless New Year vegetables is to keep them fresh and avoid food spoilage. Most of the various New Year vegetables contain too much fat and salt. When cooking the leftovers again, it is recommended to change the cooking method and add more vegetables to achieve a balanced diet.

Do not leave the New Year vegetables at room temperature for too long to prevent them from spoiling.

Nutritionist Xu Weijie reminds that when turning leftovers into new dishes, three major principles should be followed. First, put uneaten leftovers in the refrigerator as soon as possible and do not leave them at room temperature for too long to prevent the New Year dishes from spoiling and Deterioration; Secondly, if the first cooking is a high-oil, high-salt dish, the taste should become lighter when cooking again; more importantly, more green vegetables should be added when cooking again. Not only will the diet be balanced, but the taste of the new dish will also be better. It will be refreshing and turn “leftovers” into “winners”.

Buddha Jumps Over the Wall with Cabbage has a refreshing taste

The common New Year dish “Buddha Jumps Over the Wall” includes taro, chestnuts and other ingredients. The first cooking method is mostly deep-frying. When cooking and heating again, the smell of oil consumption is likely to appear. It is recommended to add Chinese cabbage and baby cabbage to cook together to make the taste fresher. And remove the fuel consumption smell.

New Year dishes are indispensable for big fish and meat, including pork, chicken, fish and other meats. You can’t finish them all at one time. When cooking again, green vegetables are indispensable. For example, endless pork can be stir-fried with kale and other green vegetables, but it is not recommended to cook it in water because the dish is oily and spicy and can easily become a burden on the body.

Reused bacon and stir-fried rice cakes with dried tofu

Bacon, which is common during Chinese New Year, can be stir-fried with rice cakes to become bacon fried rice cakes or bacon fried rice. Bacon can also be added with dried tofu, onions and garlic to cook into Hakka stir-fry, or it can be eaten wrapped with lettuce, or even Stir-fry pineapple and bacon to increase the flavor of the fruit in the bacon, and you can eat fruits and vegetables at the same time.

Leftover chicken can be shredded and transformed into many new dishes

A common New Year dish is a whole chicken, which cannot be eaten at one time. There are many changes in cooking. It can be shredded into shredded chicken, mixed with different seasonings to become spicy chicken shreds, cumin chicken shreds, cold chicken shreds, etc. It can also be stir-fried into three pieces. cup chicken, or cut the chicken in half and add glass noodles, green onions, etc. to make glass noodles and chicken soup.

Leftover fish can be seasoned with sweet and sour or braised in braise

“There is fish every year” leftover fish can be braised in sweet and sour or braised in soy sauce. However, the fat and salt content in sweet and sour food should not be too much. Braised in low heat, the fish should be cooked to prevent the fish from becoming too old. However, seafood New Year dishes such as egg products or shrimps are easy to deteriorate and spoil, so it is recommended that they be eaten on the same day. If they are to be cooked again, they should be heated completely to avoid gastrointestinal discomfort.

Text ◇ Shen Nengyuan “Yuanqi Network”



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