Article Li Yingzi “Ming Pao”
After the epidemic returns to normal, citizens have a strong desire to travel abroad. Japan, Thailand, and Vietnam are all tourist hotspots for many people.
In addition to paying attention to the new coronavirus, you may also be infected with various epidemic infectious diseases during travel, such as upper respiratory diseases transmitted by droplets, dengue fever and malaria transmitted by mosquito bites, and salmonella infected by contaminated food or drinking water, etc. Immunization The weak elderly and young children are even more at-risk.
(Hong Kong News) Don’t want to end or delay the trip because of “being recruited”, Dr. Liang Jieren from the Emergency Department of Sanatorium and Hospital will answer 5 common questions about travel-related infectious diseases, and provide 3 must-do preparations before departure and during the trip , to play with peace of mind and fun!
Influenza viruses cannot be ignored
Question 1. What are the common infectious diseases when traveling abroad?
Liang Jieren said that the infectious diseases that are prevalent in different regions are different. Taking dengue fever, which is very common in tropical regions, as an example, there are only about dozens of cases in Hong Kong every year, but there are nearly 10,000 cases in Singapore, where the weather is hot all year round. There are hundreds of thousands of cases in American countries, and some backward areas have a higher risk of infection due to poor sanitation.
As for areas with poor water quality, you need to pay attention to infectious diseases such as cholera and salmonella.
He pointed out that even if society returns to normal, the new coronavirus is still spreading among the population, and the common influenza virus that causes upper respiratory tract infections cannot be ignored. There is still a chance of being “caught” when traveling abroad, and it is recommended to take preventive measures.
What should I pay attention to when traveling? He reminded that it is possible to be infected with various epidemic infectious diseases during travel, and how to reduce the chance of infection before going out and during travel? What symptoms should I seek medical treatment as soon as possible after returning home?
Pay attention to children’s mental state
Q2. Who are the high-risk groups? What symptoms should seek medical attention immediately?
He emphasized that people with weak immunity, such as children and the elderly, are more susceptible to infectious diseases. Elderly people are generally able to express their own conditions and discomforts, but children may not be able to express themselves well, so parents should pay special attention to their performance and mental state.
“If a child has a normal appetite, is in good spirits, and is able to play as usual, the problem should not be serious. However, if the child is unwilling to play and eat, and at the same time refuses to pay attention to others, and shows symptoms of fatigue and sluggishness, he should be more vigilant.”
Liang Jieren pointed out that if the fever and rash persist, it may be caused by the bite of a mosquito that carries the pathogenic source. It is recommended to seek medical treatment as soon as possible. If you have symptoms of gastroenteritis but still have an appetite, you can observe first; but if you have frequent diarrhea, vomiting, inability to eat or drink, or even fever and blood in the stool, it is recommended to seek medical attention as soon as possible, because there may be an infection Cholera or salmonella need to be diagnosed by a doctor, and antibiotics should be prescribed for treatment. This situation will not be “let it go”, and delaying treatment may make the condition worse.
Avoid eating uncooked food
Q3. How to reduce the chance of contracting infectious diseases when traveling abroad?
He said that some infectious diseases can be vaccinated to reduce the risk of infection, such as influenza vaccine and new crown vaccine, which can reduce the chance of upper respiratory tract infection; Japanese encephalitis, malaria and yellow fever can also be prevented through vaccines.
Citizens should browse the “Travel Health Service” webpage of the Department of Health when planning their itinerary to learn about the epidemic situation of infectious diseases and epidemic prevention requirements in the destination. Some areas with high incidence of infectious diseases may require specific vaccinations before entering the country.
As for infectious diseases that are imported from the mouth, we must start with food hygiene. He suggested that eating cold, uncooked and improperly processed food should be avoided, so as not to cause gastrointestinal discomfort. In addition, if you go to Southeast Asia and tropical areas where there are many mosquitoes, you should bring mosquito repellent and spray it on the exposed skin regularly to prevent mosquito bites.
It is not recommended to take local medicine
Q4. Do I need to bring “safety medicine” with me when traveling abroad? Is it feasible to take local medicine?
He emphasized that it is not recommended for travelers to buy proprietary medicines in tourist destinations. Firstly, it will be difficult to communicate, and secondly, the ingredients of the medicines are difficult to understand. Taking them indiscriminately may cause adverse effects. The most appropriate way is to pre-purchase some household medicines before departure Or medicines prescribed by a doctor, such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, cough, nasal and gastrointestinal medicine, etc., to prevent problems before they happen.
For relatively mild cases, he believes that “safety medicine” can temporarily stabilize the condition, and consider continuing the journey if feasible. However, patients are advised to eat lightly and drink clean and bottled water with hygienic guarantees, so as not to stimulate the stomach and aggravate the condition.
If you feel unwell after returning home, seek medical attention as soon as possible
Q5. What symptoms should I seek medical treatment after returning to my country?
Most infectious diseases have an incubation period, and it is possible to be infected during travel and to develop the disease after returning home. He reminded citizens to seek medical advice as soon as possible if symptoms such as fever, rash, persistent diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and difficulty in breathing appear after returning from overseas travel, and to inform the doctor of the places and times of travel they have visited, so as to help the doctor make an accurate diagnosis.
Gastroenteritis Influenza Hand Foot Mouth Disease Chicken Pox Awareness 4 Infectious Diseases in Children
When a newborn baby is born, parents must be very nervous, especially now that the coronavirus is still raging, which makes parents worry that the baby will get sick due to weak resistance.
The following 4 types of common infectious diseases in children include gastroenteritis, flu, hand, foot and mouth disease, chickenpox, etc. Parents should know more about these infectious diseases.
What are the preventive methods?
Common infectious diseases in children include gastroenteritis, flu, hand-foot-mouth disease and chickenpox. Parents should learn more about these diseases and how to prevent them.
Annual flu vaccine recommended
1. Acute gastroenteritis diarrhea vomiting fever
Zeng Shangxian, a resident doctor at the Sanatorium and Hospital, said that the most common infectious disease for newborn babies from zero to one year old is acute gastroenteritis, because when they start to grow up, they will put their hands or small objects in their mouths, if they have pathogens, such as rotavirus It will lead to gastroenteritis, and generally diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and decreased urine output will occur.
He pointed out that there is currently no antiviral drug to treat rotavirus, and patients should add enough water to avoid dehydration.
Prevention Tips:To prevent children from being infected with rotavirus, he reminded parents to pay more attention to household hygiene, especially in places where newborn babies are changed. Antibodies from mothers can also be passed on to babies through breastfeeding. In addition, parents may also consider allowing their infants to receive oral rotavirus vaccine, which has been found to be 90% effective in some studies.
2. Seasonal influenza (flu) Acute respiratory disease
Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses, including influenza A, B, and C viruses. However, since influenza strains may change from time to time (antigenic shift) and immunity from vaccinations from previous seasons may wane over time, parents are advised to schedule influenza vaccinations for their children every year.
Prevention Tips:It can be prevented with an annual flu vaccine.
Children should wash their hands after going to the toilet
3. Hand, foot and mouth disease with blisters and ulcers in the mouth
Another common infectious disease in children is hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus. The peak period is from early summer to early autumn, and there may be a small peak in winter.
He said that there are more than 70 types of enteroviruses, the most common being enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is mainly transmitted through contact with patients’ nasal or throat secretions, saliva, pierced blisters, feces, or touching contaminated objects. Blisters, red spots, ulcers, and pain will appear in the mouth of the patient, making it difficult to eat; rashes will also appear on the palms and soles of the feet. HFMD can lead to serious complications, such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, etc., which can be serious or even fatal.
Prevention Tips:Parents must pay attention to the personal hygiene of their children, especially after playing outside and washing their hands thoroughly after going to the toilet. He also reminded that since enterovirus can remain in the feces for two weeks, even if the child has recovered, there is still a chance to spread the virus in the feces. Parents should pay attention to separate the cleaning products.
4. Chickenpox pneumonia encephalitis pay attention to wound bacterial infection
Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus and is common in children under the age of 12. He pointed out that most people can recover on their own after getting chickenpox, but some patients may have bacterial infections in their wounds. People with weak immunity, including newborn babies, are more likely to develop serious complications such as pneumonia and encephalitis after getting chickenpox.
Prevention Tips:Chickenpox can be prevented through vaccination. About 9 adults can develop immunity after vaccination.