Transcript: Liang Yingxiu
(Kuala Lumpur News) Before understanding the development and function of testicles, first understand what testicles are. Testicles, also known as male gonads, are a vital organ in the reproductive system. This paired organ is responsible for producing sperm and secreting androgens, which are male hormones.
Hidden testicles have no function
Dr. Luo Zezhen, a consultant urology specialist, pointed out that testicular development begins during the embryonic stage, around the sixth week of pregnancy. At this time, the embryo already has cells that can lead to the potential to become male or female.
“The development of the male testicle is determined by the presence of the Y chromosome. All human cells have two sets of chromosomes. If the last set is XX chromosomes, the embryo will become a female; if it is XY, the embryo will become a male. .”
“About the eighth week of pregnancy, the testicles begin to form and slowly descend into the scrotum from their original position, the back side of the abdominal cavity. This process is called ‘testicular descent’. The descent of the testicles is guided by the vaginal belt of the testicles, which leads to the testicles.” There are five branches, each of which has the potential to pull the descending testicles to their respective destinations.”
“Under normal circumstances, the leading scrotum plays a leading role, causing the testicles to descend into the scrotum. However, under abnormal circumstances, other branches can guide the testicles down to different ectopic locations. This location is also where the urethra hides. The place.”
If a man’s testicles are not in the scrotum, surgeons usually look for the testicles in this ectopic location. However, he wants to emphasize that, “Although the testicle has been formed, it also has all the testicular cells. If there is a problem with the descending process, the testicle will not be able to fully produce normal sperm. Therefore, whether the testicle descends or not , is very important.”
He pointed out that hidden testicles are generally non-functional and may cause cancer, so we must be careful.
Sperm count decreases with age
The testicles are responsible for producing sperm, so there are some physiological problems and diseases that need to be paid attention to. He said that sperm production is a very complicated process and is also affected by some hormones. If a male hormone is imbalanced, and there is an imbalance between testosterone and hormones, this will also affect the production of sperm.
“The strongest ability to produce sperm is when men have just gone through puberty. Although they can still produce sperm until they are old, generally older men will have slightly reduced sperm quantity and quality.”
He reminded that high temperature is a very important factor in hair loss.
Since high temperature will affect sperm production,
Therefore, he often advises men, “Don’t wear pants that are too tight.
Avoid taking hot baths or saunas too often.
In particular, try not to use your computer or laptop on your lap.
Because this will cause the temperature of the scrotum to increase. “
“The increase in scrotal temperature is sometimes affected by diseases. For example, if a man is infected with a disease such as dengue and has a fever for several days, the quantity and quality of his sperm will decrease for about two or three days after he recovers from the disease. After a few months, it will be slightly reduced.”
In addition to this, infection with certain diseases can also directly affect the reproductive organs, including gonorrhea; varicocele (Varicocele), drug abuse, etc.; coupled with factors such as work stress and some genetic diseases, It can also affect sperm production. There are some autoimmune diseases, but these are quite rare.
Testosterone affects sexual desire
Another function of testicles is the secretion of hormones, that is, the secretion of testosterone.
He revealed that the secretion of testosterone is at its highest after puberty. During that period, the level of testosterone is very, very high. It is also during this period that the body can be affected by the androgen, testosterone, and the cells will also show some symptoms. Side effects such as acne are caused by excessive stimulation of fat-secreting cells in the skin.
“Of course testosterone plays many roles, not only in sexual function, but it also promotes muscle growth and bone stability.”
He pointed out that testosterone also has a great impact on the brain. It will increase a man’s drive, competitiveness and sexual desire. Generally, the secretion of hormones is not affected.
“If there is any problem, it is easier to affect the function of sperm production. The secretion function of testosterone is relatively less affected, and the affected hormone secretion will decrease with age. Therefore, some men reach a certain age. You may feel you don’t have enough androgens.”
Swelling is not painful and hard when squeezed
or testicular cancer
The size of the testicles is closely related to the disease. The first thing you need to understand is that the testicles must be able to descend to the scrotum normally before they can continue to grow.
Normal testicles are indeed very small from newborn to baby, that is, from 0 to 1 year old, and their volume generally does not exceed 1 ml or 1 ml.
Slow growth from 1 to 9 years old
Luo Zezin pointed out that when from 1 to 9 years old, the testicles still grow slowly. Basically, the volume of a boy’s testicles is an average of half a milliliter from the age of 1, and it does not increase to 1.5 ml until about the age of 10. , the concept of 1.5 ml is like a big red bean.
“Once a boy enters puberty, from the age of 10 to 18, the volume of the testicles will grow rapidly, from almost 2 ml to an average of about 15 ml, which is the most basic volume for adults.”
“The testicles of young men will be slightly elastic if they are gently squeezed. The testicles will also gradually degenerate with age, usually starting at the age of 50. Degeneration will make the testicles slightly softer when squeezed. And it may even shrink.”
The difference in the size of a normal male’s testicles may be affected by genetic factors, racial factors, and juvenile growth factors. Generally speaking, Asians’ testicles are slightly smaller than those of Westerners. There are also some important diseases that may affect the testicles. In terms of size, the greatest likelihood of these diseases is testicular cancer in men between the ages of 20 and 35.
Treat testicular torsion as soon as possible
The earliest manifestation of testicular cancer is swelling, which is very hard and painless when squeezed. Therefore, if you find that your testicles are slightly larger and hard, you should seek medical advice immediately.
In addition, testicular torsion can easily occur during puberty, which is called testicular torsion. Because the ligaments of the testicles are twisted, the blood supply cannot enter the testicles. If this situation is not treated as soon as possible, it may lead to serious complications. Later testicular degeneration will occur.
In addition, there is also the problem of varicocele, which will also cause early degeneration and shrinkage of the testicles, and the shrunken testicles will lose its two functions, namely, first, the function of producing sperm; second, hormonal function Secretory function.
If this condition only affects one side (unilateral), the overall function is still there. However, if it degenerates on both sides, it will lead to infertility and even problems with sexual performance.