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Chengdu Huiyang Investment’s first year of semi-solid vehicle loading has arrived, and next-generation battery technology contains opportunities

Chengdu Huiyang Investment’s first year of semi-solid vehicle loading has arrived, and next-generation battery technology contains opportunities

As the penetration rate of electric vehicles continues to increase, people have higher and higher requirements for battery safety and cruising range. Liquid lithium-ion batteries are the mainstream technology route for power batteries. On the one hand, the flammability and high corrosiveness of organic solvents in liquid electrolytes and the unavoidable lithium dendrite problem during the charge and discharge process have caused people to worry about battery safety; on the other hand, people are worried about battery safety; On the one hand, the energy density of liquid batteries has approached the ceiling constrained by the material system, and the space for upward iteration is limited. In the current situation of severe overcapacity of homogeneous production, getting rid of cost orientation, exploring new technologies, and seeking breakthroughs in safety and performance have become a new evolutionary path for the power battery industry.

According to the mass percentage of liquid electrolyte in the battery, lithium batteries can be divided into liquid batteries, semi-solid batteries, quasi-solid batteries and all-solid batteries. Semi-solid, quasi-solid and all-solid batteries are collectively called solid-state batteries. Solid-state batteries follow the same charging and discharging principles as liquid-state batteries, and use solid-state electrolytes to replace the liquid electrolytes and separators in liquid-state batteries, eliminating the safety hazards of flammable liquid leakage and significantly increasing battery energy density. key research directions in the field.

At present, due to factors such as material technology and preparation technology that are not mature enough and production costs are too high, the industry generally believes that the industrialization of all-solid-state batteries will take at least 5 years, and semi-solid-state batteries have become a good transition technology.

  [The first year of semi-solid loading has arrived, and the industrialization process is accelerating]

On January 9, 2021, NIO released a 150kWh semi-solid battery pack at NIO Day. Since then, there have been frequent reports of progress in semi-solid automotive-grade batteries. Driven by the joint efforts of car companies and battery manufacturers, semi-solid-state batteries will gradually achieve mass production and vehicle delivery starting in 2022. For example, Weilan New Energy, NIO’s semi-solid-state battery supplier, will launch sales in November 2022 and 2023 respectively. In June of this year, the battery pack was rolled off the assembly line and delivered to vehicles.

Data released by the Power Battery Alliance shows that in 2023, solid-liquid hybrid batteries from Weilan New Energy, Ganfeng Lithium Battery and other companies will be installed in batches, with a loading volume of about 0.8GWh, of which Weilan New Energy will be installed in November and December. The vehicle volumes were 0.41GWh and 0.35GWh respectively, marking a significant acceleration in the industrialization process of semi-solid-state batteries.

The advantages of solid-state lithium batteries in terms of energy density and safety have led major vehicle manufacturers to accelerate their embrace of solid-state batteries and regard them as the main technical route for the next generation of power batteries. International car companies including Toyota, Nissan, BMW, and Ford plan to launch electric models equipped with all-solid-state batteries between 2025 and 2030.

  [Enterprises are accelerating their layout, taking the lead in mass production of semi-solid-state batteries]

In 2023, the domestic semi-solid battery installed volume will exceed the GWh level, officially starting the industrialization process. According to Gaogong Lithium Battery data, as of December 2023, the cumulative production capacity planning of domestic semi-solid-state batteries has reached close to 300GWh, with the actual production capacity of about 15GWh, and the shipment volume has exceeded the GWh level. Among them, the start-up battery company Weilan New Energy is represented, and its semi-solid battery installed capacity reaches 0.8GWh, mainly installed in NIO. According to Gaogong Lithium Battery, there will be more than 5 new models equipped with (semi-)solid-state batteries on the market in China in 2024, and shipments are expected to reach the 5GWh level.

In terms of key materials, some companies have successfully developed solid electrolytes, some are in the stage of pilot testing and sending samples to customers, and some have achieved small batch supply. Overall, the current solid electrolyte industry is still small, but it has a certain basis for scale.

The semi-solid batteries of domestic companies are the first to enter the mass production stage. The semi-solid batteries of some companies have been verified for installation on relevant models and will be produced in small batches in 2023. In 2024, more companies will start mass production of semi-solid-state batteries. The solid-state battery mass production time of overseas companies such as Japan, South Korea, Europe and the United States is concentrated in 2026-2030.

In the future, with the continuous advancement of solid-state battery technology, costs will gradually show a downward trend, especially as the industrialization process of domestic semi-solid-state batteries has begun, and the market size of solid-state batteries will grow rapidly. According to the “China Solid-State Battery Industry Development White Paper (2024)” released by EVTank, global solid-state battery shipments are expected to reach 614.1GWh by 2030, and the penetration rate in the overall lithium battery is expected to be around 10%, and the market size will More than 250 billion yuan, mainly semi-solid batteries.

Solid-state batteries are considered to be an ideal solution to solve the safety problems of lithium batteries and increase energy density. They have been focused on the industry as a next-generation technology route. Since 2022, the R&D and industrialization of solid-state batteries have made significant progress. In particular, the technological progress and cost reductions of domestic companies in the field of semi-solid-state batteries have greatly exceeded expectations, represented by Weilan New Energy and Ganfeng Lithium Battery. Semi-solid-state batteries will be mass-produced and installed in vehicles in 2023, marking that semi-solid-state batteries have entered the first year of industrialization. As battery companies implement their production capacity plans and more car companies’ models are installed in vehicles, the industrialization process of solid-state batteries is expected to accelerate.

  We have screened out the following potential targets:

  Oriental Zirconium Industry (002167)Interactive easy reply on February 6, 2023: There are many kinds of solid-state battery electrolytes, such as polymer polyethylene oxide; lithium sulfide; oxide lithium phosphorus oxygen nitrogen, lithium lanthanum zirconium oxygen, etc. If it is a lithium lanthanum zirconium oxygen solid electrolyte, zirconium oxide needs to be used. The company’s production capacity of high-purity ultra-fine zirconium dioxide, which can be used as a cathode material additive for ternary lithium batteries, is approximately 1,500 tons/year.

  Dangsheng Technology(300073)Reply from the interactive platform on December 24, 2019: The company’s solid-state lithium battery materials have been sent samples to many customers at home and abroad, and the product performance has been widely recognized. Follow-up research and development is currently being carried out based on customer feedback and needs.

  Xiang Fenghua(300890)The company responded on August 8, 2022: It has signed a strategic cooperation agreement with Qingtao Energy. The two parties have agreed to reach a comprehensive strategic cooperation in the research and development and supply of key technologies for high specific volume anode materials for solid-state/semi-solid batteries.

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